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How to develop a Cryptocurrency Exchange?

According to statistics, there are more than 1,500 active cryptocurrencies in the market, and the huge number of cryptocurrency types provides unprecedented opportunities for cryptocurrency exchange applications. This article will introduce the core components and main functions of creating a cryptocurrency exchange software.
In fact, due to the emergence of the Ethereum platform, the speed of the launch of new cryptocurrencies has been greatly accelerated. The smart contracts of the Ethereum platform provide the ability to issue new coins simply and quickly.
Cryptocurrency exchange applications should be fast, intuitive, and powerful. To achieve these goals, the exchange application should include the following components:

  1. Trading engine
  2. Front-end user interface
  3. Cryptocurrency wallet
  4. Management console

In addition to these basic functions, every cryptocurrency exchange application should have additional features that can be developed after collecting user feedback or analyzing top global exchange applications.
Let's take a look at the key components of the application.


Trading engine

The trading engine is the core of the exchange application. It is essential for transaction execution, balance calculation, order record access, and matching of buy / sell transactions.
When developing cryptocurrency applications, priority should be given to the construction of transaction engines. Without a powerful engine, a cryptocurrency application can only be an empty shell of no value.


Front-end user interface

The user interface is the face of the exchange, and it largely determines how users view the exchange. Make sure to build a user-friendly and intuitive interface in a minimalistic way to provide a surprising trading experience and make it easier for users to execute trading orders. When building this component make sure it has the following features:

  • User registration and login
  • Deposit / withdrawal of funds
  • Orders, transactions, balance inquiry and statistics
  • Buy / sell order
  • Customer support functions


Cryptocurrency wallet

Embedded support for cryptocurrency wallets is very important for exchange applications. All crypto tokens / currency will be stored in the user's wallet. A more secure wallet solution will help develop trust between users and cryptocurrency exchanges.
The wallet can be run on the exchange server as a daemon process and integrated into the cryptocurrency exchange application using a script or API.


Management console

The management console will help exchange operators or holders manage the different operational aspects of cryptocurrency exchange. The functions of the console can be customized according to specific business needs, but in general, the management console must include the following functions:

  • Set transaction fees
  • Manage cryptocurrency list
  • Add new currency
  • Credit / debit funds to wallet
  • Resolving support issues


What are Ethereum ERC20 Tokens and how do they work?


To understand the Ethereum token concept , you must start by first understanding some fundamental concepts.
Ethereum is a decentralized platform on which smart contracts are run . So the definition above makes it clear that Ethereum is not a digital currency (Ethereum's native cryptocurrency is called ether). Put another way, Ethereum is a piece of code that could automatically transfer home ownership to the buyer and funds to the seller after reaching an agreement, without the need for a third party.
For its part, Token is generally defined as a thing that serves as a representation of something else. On the blockchain , a token often represents a financial value or a digital asset , similar to how casino chips symbolize or represent fiat money just for use on different machines and games of chance.

Keeping these concepts clear, it turns out that Ethereum tokens are simply digital assets that are built on top of the Ethereum blockchain . Developers take advantage of Ethereum's existing infrastructure to build their applications, unlike developers who choose to build an entirely new blockchain. At the same time, tokens strengthen the Ethereum ecosystem by driving demand for ether, Ethereum's native currency, needed to power the smart contracts on which tokens are issued.

Ethereum tokens can represent anything: from a physical object like gold (Digix), to a native currency used to pay transaction fees (Golem). In the future, tokens can even be used to represent financial instruments such as stocks and bonds. The properties and functions of each token are completely subject to the use established for them: they can be used as payment to access a network or for decentralized governance over an organization, among many other possibilities.

Tokens are often issued to the public through a general or open sale called the Initial Coin Offering (ICO). The creators of the ICO will issue tokens to others in exchange for ether or bitcoin and also for other cryptocurrencies. They can have a fixed supply, a constant inflation rate, or even a supply determined by sophisticated monetary policy. There have been many ICOs recently and in a short time they have completely changed the way projects are financed. There is no mandatory distribution requirement, although if you are building a decentralized application you would ideally want tokens to be owned by as many people as possible.
Token ERC20
ERC20 is a standard interface that guarantees interoperability between tokens. The ERC20 tokens are simply a subset of ethereum tokens that conform to certain parameters. To fully comply with ERC20 standards , the developer must incorporate a specific set of functions in their smart contract that, at a high level, will allow them to perform the following actions:
1. Get the total supply of tokens
2. Get the account balance
3. Transfer the token
4. Approve spending the token
ERC20 enables seamless interaction with other smart contracts and decentralized applications on the Ethereum blockchain. Tokens that with some (but not all) of the standard functions are considered partially ERC20 compliant and may still interact depending on which functions are missing.
In general, a token ERC20 is no different from any other token , but also conforms to the standard token of ethereum.
Why does Ethereum need a standard token?
Interoperability. If all the tokens created on the Ethereum network use the same standard, those tokens will be easily interchangeable and will be able to work immediately with Dapps that use the ERC20 standard.
What a "standardized" token does is that it uses a certain set of functions. If developers know in advance how a token will work, they can easily integrate it into their projects with less fear of making mistakes. If multiple tokens behave similarly, calling the same functions the same way, then a Dapp can more easily interact with different sub-currencies.
Like bitcoin and ether, ERC20 tokens can also be tracked on the blockchain, which is the public ledger of all transactions that have occurred. This is because Ethereum tokens are just a specific type of smart contract that '' lives '' on the Ethereum blockchain.
Currently there are many projects that are leveraged on the Ethereum blockchain and the ERC20 standard to issue the necessary tokens to operate their platforms. It is very likely that this market will continue to grow with new and better applications that meet this standard in order to interact with each other.
 


Blockchain in Agriculture

Blockchain in Agriculture
Did you know that the total number of deaths in the world is due to hunger? This is not at all because of the food shortage. Of course, the food shortage increases along with the increase in the population. We also waste a significant amount of food on a daily basis. Food is wasted for a number of reasons and many factors affect it. One of the reasons is that food is only spoiled because of the inefficient food supply chain.
The food supply chain is inefficient with current technology, and most of the work is still done manually. With numerous middlemen running the supply chain, food producers are struggling to get fair prices for their food. Consumers are unsure about the whereabouts of the food they buy. They are not sure if what they eat is organic. A sticker on the food product does not ensure that it is actually organic food. Those who enjoy the profit are middlemen.

Food fraud is very common and often undetectable. Consumers are very concerned about this because they affect health. And they have no way of checking the quality of the food they buy. For this reason, the scammers make a lot of money by exploiting innocent consumers.
These issues must be resolved with the highest priority because there are no compromises when it comes to health.

The solution:
Food waste can be eliminated and avoided by making the food supply chain efficient. This can be a solution in many ways. The farmer benefits by getting the fair price for his products by eliminating middlemen, hunger can be satisfied and food fraud can be eliminated.

How is it possible?
Blockchain offers transparency; 
it shows what is happening in the blocks so that everyone in the block can see where the product comes from; 
and whether it's organic by using smart IoT devices in the farm that recognize the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
 By eliminating the middlemen, farmers can effectively send their agricultural products directly to the grocer or consumer, making profits.
 In the case of food fraud, no one can fool blockchain technology because of its decentralized nature. Since the blockchain network is distributed across the networks, the data in the network cannot be manipulated. In this way, integrity can be preserved and food fraud can be eliminated.
There are many other problems in agriculture and farming, blockchain has solutions to most problems. Identify it, build a blockchain in agriculture, and transform your business with agriculture and human health.


Benefits of launching an ICO.
What is ICO: Blockchains Technology and Its Benefits

Blockchain is not Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency. No. It's just cryptocurrency using blockchain. Simply put, a block is a group of transactions. A chain is a group of blocks connected to each other. Put the two words together, and there it is - blockchain.

All of these blocks are linked together in chains to form a public database. This database is public because it is shared with hundreds or even thousands of computers. We can think of this computer as a server for the blockchain / database.

Advantages of launching an ICO

There are a multitude of reasons why half of Carlos Domingo's audience at 4YFN raised their hands after his question. Reasons why, since July 2014, when Ethereum launched the first ICO in history , the total collected through this instrument amounts to more than 12,000 million US dollars. ICOs are a financing instrument with many advantages. These are some of them according to two experts, Emilie Allaert (Luxembourg House of Financial Technology) and Lindsay Lin (Stellar.org), and the blockchain company RefToken .

Quick and easy . Any company can start an ICO through various platforms like Ethereum or Stellar.

Access to an international and online market . The potential market is made up of all those who have internet access. The campaign can be promoted through social networks, specialized websites and forums.

All the decentralizing power of blockchain technology . The particularities of blockchain technology itself (a shared, decentralized, and secure network) influence the processes of an initial public offering . Furthermore, by eliminating intermediaries, the resources required to complete each transaction are much less.

Liquidity . For investors and consumers, one of the great advantages is that cryptocurrency markets tend to be very liquid. That is, usually, large amounts of capital can be acquired in a short time.

Democratization of investment . Investors do not have to be part of a select City of London club to be able to invest. Access to tokens is public and can be achieved from anywhere in the world.

Great profit potential . The data in our Spotify example was fictitious, mostly because the profit margins were too low to be an ICO. The price of the popular bitcoin was 90 euros in June 2013. Right now it is worth about 6,500, but it exceeded 16,000.

Blockchain in digital marketing
Blockchain in Digital Marketing?

 
What is the blockchain?
This technology lies in the transfer of digital data . How? In a totally secure way through an encoding that stands out for its sophistication. The similarity can be established with an account book where the inflows and outflows of capital are found. In this case, it alludes to a digital fact book.
The enormous novelty that comes with the blockchain is that the figure of the intermediary disappears . Thus, it is not necessary for a mediator to record and verify the information.
This new scenario means that the information you enter cannot be deleted, but only new records can be included. It serves to ensure, reduce and streamline processes , so that they are carried out with complete transparency and without intermediaries .
 
Blockchain features :We explain its main characteristics
 
Immutability
This quality resides in the capacity of technology not to be altered or modified . Thus, each node in the network keeps a copy of the digital record. If you want to add a transaction, each of the nodes needs to verify its validity.
 
 
 
 
Technological decentralization
In essence, a set of nodes keeps this technology decentralized . In other words, there is no authority that exercises control or that governs it.
 
Optimized security
This characteristic lies in the aforementioned absence of authority, which means that it cannot use the information to its own advantage . In addition, the use of encryption guarantees total security of the system.
 
Relationship between blockchain and Digital Marketing
Once you know what this technology consists of and what its most relevant characteristics are, we delve into how blockchain and digital marketing constitute a profitable tandem .
 
Full confidence in transactions
Have you ever experienced mistrust during your online purchases ? With this technology, trust will be established , since there is full security in transactions. Forget about fakes. What you purchase will not be a copy. Therefore, brands will gain strength.
 
 
 
Brands take responsibility
Until now, if a company wanted to do something, you had no choice but to trust their word. This situation is transformed with new technology and its smart contracts, which are agreements that are fulfilled once the parties have committed to it. Therefore, business promises are marked by responsibility .
 
The end of trolls
The user will be sure of the attack of the trolls. You know why? If we had a unique and universal key to surf the net that would replace all the ones we used previously, it would put an end to those people who pretend to be others to attack the competition.
 
Who exercises command?
At the blockchain level, it is the user who has the power over their data . In this sense, if a brand wants to send information or an announcement to a person, they would have to ask them. The consumer will put a cost on the transaction that arises when providing their data.
 
New way of understanding SEO and SEM
As mentioned, there are no longer intermediaries for transactions. What does this fact mean for SEO and SEM ? A revolution, since currently companies like Facebook , Twitter and Google act as a point of union between advertisers and digital media.
The most immediate consequence is that SEO developers will have to employ the blockchain on each of the exchanges . This will make the process faster, more efficient and cheaper.
 
How to use Blockchain to optimize a digital Marketing campaign

The essence of blockchain applied to online marketing is that, as it is a decentralized system,  people emerge as the core . How to apply this feature to your marketing campaigns ?
 
Avoid ad fraud
Ad fraud  refers to the misleading advertising that carries with false information. What he wants is a quick conversion, although it will be extended until the community finds out.
 
Analyze the customer journey
In addition, the blockchain opens the doors to registration and analysis of the customer journey . This makes it possible to detect fraud, fake profiles, bots and other practices of a fraudulent nature.
It also provides you with accurate information on where the ad was delivered. With which, you will optimize the investment avoiding losses.
 
ROI improvement
Added to them is the optimization of ROI or return on investment . How is it possible? Thanks to the suppression of overexposure to ads and other actions.
In this case, what could work is that your clients receive campaigns or offers only in the case of sharing their data. Can you imagine how it would improve the personalization of your messages?
 
Improved user experience
In this sense, we would bet on new segmentation strategies based on more specific data, which ensures you less investment for higher conversion rates.
Thus, the engagement of the target audience with your brand could improve considerably.
 
What happens to the traceability of the product?
The blockchain would provide you with greater security by ensuring that only good quality products are purchased.
In essence, the blockchain has the ability to reinvent your relationships with customers . Early entrepreneurship through this alternative will bring digital marketing a better position for companies. Not surprisingly, the client is its epicenter and it will gain transparency and security. In addition, it guarantees that you delve and establish a more profitable engagement with it.


How the Blockchain will affect investment process and real estate?
How the Blockchain will affect investment process and real Estate?
The blockchain is breaking as one of the most disruptive technologies and promising for the future of transactions and therefore also the online investment . 
Investing in housing , in other processes or acquiring real estate through this technology will be a reality thanks to this 'blockchain'. We explain how:
Cryptocurrencies, the money used in blockchain

There are several types of virtual currencies, but the best known is Bitcoin. This coin was created in 2009 under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto . Soon its popularity increased along with its value.
Can I buy a house with bitcoins?

The answer is yes . In Spain, payment by bitcoins is legalized and some real estate agencies accept them as a currency, but it is still a 'cumbersome' system since, since it is not an official currency, the value has to be changed to euros. The transaction for the acquisition of part or of the entire house through bitcoins has to be carried out before a notary . This will certify the amount delivered and the documentation, which must appear in legal tender (euros) and thus avoid any suspicion of money laundering. On the other hand, since it is a fluctuating value, if at the time of the transaction the price of bitcoin rises and profits are obtained, the real estate agent must pay it.
And what will the blockchain guarantee?

To summarize in a very simple way the blockchain , it is like a large account book where each and every one of the operations appear digitally registered. Each information management and update will be reproduced equally in each of the multiple nodes (computers or hard drives) that store the information, which guarantees unprecedented fairness, veracity and transparency in all data. The operations between company and user will be carried out through a 'smart contract' or smart contract that will be encrypted and can be modified or signed by means of a digital certificate. All this will imply that the figure of notaries, lawyers or other managers involved in the sale and purchase process of, for example, a property is not necessary.
Digging deeper into smart contracts

The smart contract was born between 2013 and 2014. Initially, they were programmed to carry out a transaction between a 

  • User A who requests the services of a user B.
  • When B ends the services, 
  • A accepts that the funds be released and paid to B If you disagree, within 7 days a 'judge' will make a verdict to agree with A or B.

It was not until 2015 when the full potential that smart contracts could have was known . In that year the first transaction was made with Ethereum, another of the most popular cryptocurrencies. Ethereum made its blockchain chain available so that others could develop decentralized applications (known as dApp).
This fact was a technological milestone since it allows to develop blockchain-based applications without having to start from scratch, saving costs and technical, financial and logical barriers, and opening the panorama to be able to create new cryptocurrencies.
The applications decentralized have as an open source features a BBDD protected by a public blockchain and its own token to access the application. In the case of Bitcoin, Bitcoin (BTC) is its token and in the case of Ethereum, Ether (ETH), it is its token.
The author of the book 'The business blockchain', William Mougayar, defines the token as “a unit of value that an organization creates to govern its business model and give more power to its users to interact with its products, while facilitating distribution and distribution of profits among all its shareholders ”.
A token can represent from a DNI , to an insurance policy, a credit or a property right, for example. Therefore, dApps can issue tokens which represent what the dApp promoter and its community agree on.
Token, ICO and Smart Contract, the future of investment

The combination of these three factors will be the future of the investment. You already know the Smart Contracts and tokens, now we give you a brief brushstroke about what ICOs are:
ICOs (Initial Coin Offering) are financing prior to the creation of a cryptocurrency.
The advantages of making an ICO are multiple, both for the ICO promoter and for its investors.
Among the advantages for the promoter:

 An ICO offers a scalable financing solution , added to the 'momentum' that ICOs now have in general.
  • Being able to offer much smaller amounts of investment than through traditional channels thanks to its scalability, the number of investors that can be used is much greater.
  •  It allows linking the promoter's future market with the project, giving a representative sample of its potential.
  • Being a decentralized model, it eliminates intermediaries , having a superior scalability compared to centralized models.

Among the advantages for the investor:

  • By being able to go with very small investment amounts,  an ICO makes it  easier to diversify the investment portfolio .
  • Since tokens are listed on exchange houses, the investor will always know what their token is worth and will be able to liquidate it whenever they want.
  • While the collection is taking place, the developer will normally use a Smart Contract in the similar way as an escrow account (deposit accounts for the purchase of companies where part of the deposited price is in guarantee) to block the funds. In this way, the investor has security regarding the destination of his funds.

As you see, cryptocurrencies, blockchain, investment and real estate are closely linked with each other. Investing in an ICO for the creation or development of cryptocurrencies and acquiring real estate through them through smart contracts that guarantee security on both sides may be the future where the real estate sector is established.
Stay tuned to our blog to be informed of all our news and consult our real estate guide  to find out everything you need to know about the sector.


Understanding the Initial Coin Offering Concept: What is ICO Fundraising?
People who want to be involved in the Initial Coin Offering must do their research and work carefully.

With the increasing popularity of crowdfunding , the Initial Coin Offering (ICO) has become the latest project in raising funds and capital needed to start a business. 2017 is the year where the Initial Coin Offering became popular. This popularity may be due to the increase in crypto and blockchain in the media, or perhaps because of the convenience provided for contributors to support a project.Technology that Enables Existence of Initial Coin Offering

Initial Coin Offering benefits from blockchain technology.

Blockchain is a unique block of data that is interconnected to form a public database. This database is considered public because it connects hundreds or even thousands of computers. Try to imagine these computers as a blockchain or database server. Every change that occurs in a public database must be verified by more than 51% of the computers on the network. If there is no confirmation, then no changes will occur. Therefore it is very difficult to hack the database because a hacker must control more than 51% of computers connected at the same time. There are various companies and institutions that hold these computers. Moreover, this is referred to as decentralization because there is no single institution in control. It means, blockchain is a secure database that is not under the control of a single entity. Anyone can tamper with the database as long as 51% of the computer users approve it.

Database changes in question are a variety of transactions that occur in the network. In the case of Bitcoin, this transaction is when someone is buying and selling Bitcoin. The database will track how much Bitcoin a person has. Blockchain itself can not only track transaction data. By use, blockchain can do anything, as long as it includes the value of objects and services that are on the network.

For example, a transaction can include a car or electricity bill. Of course it is not possible to physically record this transaction. There must be something that represents the value of this transaction. One of the symbols of this value representation is Token.

Tokens and Smart Contracts

A token is created as a representation of the value of the transaction. This token cannot be entered directly in the blockchain because the blockchain only processes transactions based on certain cryptocurrency, such as Ether in Ethereum Blockchain and Bitcoin in the Bitcoin Blockchain.

Initial Coin OfferingToken transactions must be processed using the application. This application is referred to as smart contract. In 1994, Nick Szabo (a cryptographer ) had a vision. He wants to make a smart contract using computer code. This contract will be activated if there are conditions that are fulfilled. That means, there are no loopholes to commit fraud, because all processes will use computer code.

Because third parties are no longer required to make contracts, each contract (or transaction) will automatically take place in a trusted network. The computer will fully control this network. Here are the essential characteristics of smart contracts:Can process transactions automaticallyTransactions will occur if the right conditions are met.Smart Contract uses Blockchain technology, so the terms of the smart contract condition cannot be changed.

Initial Coin Offering uses the advantages of smart contracts and blockchain technology to raise project funds.

A smart contract and token will be needed when creating an Initial Coin Offering. The next step is to determine the conditions of the smart contract conditions. For example: if 0.1 ETH is sent to the smart contract, the smart contract will send 1 token to the address that sends 0.1 ETH. This condition will guarantee that everyone who participates in the Initial Coin Offering will get the right amount of tokens. There is no human control, no manual distribution. Smart contracts will be publicly available so that each sender can read the conditions of the smart contract.

Two common reasons why people participate in Initial Coin Offering:

The token can be used in the application if the final product is ready to be launched.

As the popularity of the project increases, the price of tokens or coins will increase. The more people use the service, the demand will also increase.

Mastercoin, the earliest Initial Coin OfferingImagine the Initial Coin Offering as a Kickstarter version of Blockchain. The main difference is, Initial Coin Offering automates the sales process in a safe and reliable way. It all started with the first Initial Coin Offering made by Mastercoin in July 2013.

Mastercoin made a public project in January 2012. They proposed the idea that the existing Bitcoin network could be used as a protocol layer for advanced protocols. The purpose of Mastercoin is to empower new rules of smart contracts. This allows people to create new crypto without the need to create a different blockchain network. This process is the same as that done by Ethereum at this time. Ethereum is also known as Mastercoin 2.0. Even though it was made public in January 2012, fundraising to start this project began on July 31, 2013. JR Willett was the figure who created the Initial Coin Offering for the first time.

August 15 is the historical date when the Mastercoin transaction first occurred. The network was tested by sending 1 Mastercoin. After being tested, Mastercoin was opened to the public and increasingly experienced stable funding. It's just that, the biggest investor from Mastercoin is found when they make a presentation to BitAngels. BitAngels is an investor and incubator who exclusively invests in crypto money startups. BitAngels were interested in doing a project with Mastercoin and they soon joined.When raising Mastercoin funds with a Bitcoin address, if someone sends BTC before August 31, they will get 100x Mastercoin. So, if someone sends 0.01 BTC, he will get 1 Mastercoin. At the end of the Initial Coin Offering event, Mastercoin collected around 4700 BTC, which was around 500 thousand USD at that time. In comparison, 4700 BTC was already worth 41 million USD at the time this article was written. As a record, Mastercoin was once worth 0.25BTC: 1MSC.

Initial Coin Offering

In 2015, Mastercoin changed its name to Omni and started rebranding. Their aim is to leave bad news, criticism and public anger directed at Mastercoin. As a result, many Mastercoin leaders, such as JR Willet, CTO Craig Sellars and BitAngels co-founder David Johnston moved to Omni. Unfortunately this project has lost momentum and made many people disappointed. Mastercoin or Omni is only around 0.0041 BTC: 1 Omni today. However, this example does not stop people from contributing through Initial Coin Offering.

This fundraising method has proven to be effective for starting a project. Mastercoin has managed to get 500 small investors from all over the world rather than just relying on large investors to get large funds.

The Most Successful Initial Coin Offering in History

Until 2017, companies that have managed to raise several million dollars through an Initial Coin Offering have started to become scarce. Ethereum (which is the second largest crypto money in 2018) has raised $ 18 million in 2015 thanks to their smart contract innovation. Another success occurred in 2016. DAO managed to raise 150 million dollars in just minutes. DAO experienced security problems that caused them to be hit by hacker attacks resulting in losses of more than 50 million dollars. Since the rise in popularity of Mastercoin, Ethereum, and others, the concept of Initial Coin Offering has gained a lot of momentum. Collectively, the Initial Coin Offering action successfully raised 10 billion dollars in 2017 and 2018. The crypto money market itself began to slow down at the end of 2017. December 2017 is the most active month where there are 1 billion dollars collected through the Initial Coin Offering. In March 2018, the Initial Coin Offering became popular again. There are 2.9 billion dollars collected through various Initial Coin Offering campaigns.

Initial Coin OfferingIn August 2017, Filecoin Initial Coin Offering received 257 Million Dollars through more than 2,100 investors. This number makes Filecoin the most successful Initial Coin Offering in 2017. Users can rent free space on their hard drives for use by Filecoin. As a reward, users will get Filecoin which can be exchanged for Dollars, ETH, BTC and other crypto money. The success of Filecoin and other Initial Coin Offering prove that Initial Coin Offering is a good way to start a business.

1. EOS (EOS) has collected 7,162,546.39 ETH, meaning they have earned around $ 4,201,836,214 ($ 4.2 Billion) with Ethereum exchange rates in the range of $ 586 (based on BitGuru). The Initial Coin Offering from EOS lasts for 350 days and finishes on July 1.

2. Telegram (GRAM) is known as the second most successful Initial Coin Offering with a value of 1.7 billion dollars. However, Telegram may not be included in this category because they do not use Initial Coin Offering and their crypto money has never been offered to the public. According to theverge, the way they get 1.7 billion dollars is to use 2 private Pre Initial Coin Offering. They get 81 investors who give 850 million dollars and then they sell it again to 94 investors who also give 850 million dollars. Because Telegram only does 2 Pre Initial Coin Offering, they do not need public funds so that their Initial Coin Offering is fulfilled without the need to start a campaign.

3. Dragon Coin (DRG) According to Bitrazzi, DRG has raised 320 million dollars. Dragon is a decentralized currency used for gambling. DRG functions in casinos and is used to advance the industry.

4. Huobi tokens (HT) get 300 million dollars. HT is a blockchain supported by the loyalty point system . This token will allow users to get discounts at Houbi stores and make transactions with ETH or BTC.

5. Filecoin Futures (FIL) gets 257 million dollars. Filecoin is becoming popular because their Initial Coin Offering is adjusting to the SEC's new regulations. This means that only contributors with accreditation can participate in FIL's Initial Coin Offering. If they do not comply with SEC regulations, then their crypto money will be rejected by the bank, so ETH transactions to FIAT will be impossible. Filecoin has obeyed all regulations so that this incident did not occur.

6. Tezos (XTZ) gets 232 million dollars. Tezos created an accounting book distribution that was used to make smart contracts. Tezos users can get involved and fund the renewal of the protocol system. This process allows Tezos to avoid conflicts over network development in the future.

7. Siren Labs Tokens (SRN) have earned 158 million dollars. Sirin is intended for the mass adoption of blockchain technology. They focus on developing hardware for monetization of additional devices through micro transactions. At this time, Sirin is creating a blockchain ecosystem.

8. Bancor (BNT) has earned 153 million dollars. Bancor is a protocol that allows people to launch their crypto money. They call it a smart token. The biggest advantage of using a smart token is that it doesn't need a second party if you want to make a transaction. Bancor launches smart tokens and modifies ERC-20 in their internal system.

Conclusion

People who want to be involved in the Initial Coin Offering must do their research and work carefully. The crypto world is not a world for certain people. Crypto is a large industry where investors can make or lose money in a matter of weeks. There is a lot of potential in blockchain technology for future projects. Using Initial Coin Offering is the easiest way to get funds. Of course, everything has its own risks. For your Initial Coin Offering to be successful, you must think carefully about a project. You also need an experienced and dedicated team for your campaign to be successful and get public support



How Blockchain will change the financial Sector?
Blockchain in Financial Sector:


The blockchain is being the guideline for many debates and evaluations 
about the future of the blockchain in  financial sector. What is very clear is that it is a concept with the potential to change market logic and create new business opportunities.

The blockchain can be defined as a digital system of nodes that operate in parallel and allow self-certification and information exchange. Technically it is a process of adding  cryptographically signed blocks of data to form perpetual and immutable records.   That is, it is a node system that allows online transactions without the need for an intermediary, as it controls itself. This system is based on parallel and simultaneous information processing, being extremely secure. The data of the transactions after being registered cannot be falsified or erased, and they are stored in a history that contains all the operations since their creation.

Blockchain concept emerged to support the protocol of Bitcoin , but no longer limited to the monetary sector .

The blockchain goes beyond the application to currencies, such as bitcoin, since it allows to register any type of financial transaction , which can be bonds, shares, transfer of property and any type of right or obligation.

This impacts the financial sector, generating new business opportunities. 

The great challenge for companies is to adapt to this new scenario, with agility, but with great security, which is the key point of the sector.

Some relevant numbers of what the blockchain has achieved so far:

  • $ 921 million dollars invested in bitcoin and blockchain companies
805 bitcoin and blockchain companies identified ( here you can see some of them)
  • More than 30 banks and financial institutions have publicly announced that they are researching and / or investing in blockchain technologies ( here you can see some of them)
106 thousand merchants that accept blockchain

In this image you can get an idea of   the ecosystem that is around the blockchain and its main actors:


The blockchain can and should be seen as a strategic ally and not as a competitor to financial companies.

"This technology will not make banks disappear, but will allow them to explore new niches and market areas," says Antonio García-Lozano, consulting leader at Grant Thornton, in an interview with Expansión .

According to this report, the Santander bank estimates that the use of blockchain development can mean a saving of 20,000 million dollars for the financial sector by 2022.

To finish, the study Blockchain in Capital Markets, points out that the next steps and challenges for blockchain are:

1.Developing concrete proofs of concept
2.Challenge service providers to innovate
3.Understand the current quantification of operating costs
4.Maintain the commitment of the entire industry
5.Participate in prototypes and embrace "learning by doing"
6.Bringing the business mindset for tech startups
7.Prepare the narrative of the regulatory and supervisory bodies
8.At Private Investments Network we believe that blockchain brings opportunities to explore new markets. We act as a RegTech and we are dedicated to allowing unlisted companies to adapt to new technologies such as blockchain by supporting them so that they can also stay within compliance parameters  .

How blockchain is applied in schools?
Usage of Blockchain in Education:
Blockchain technology makes it easier for students to manage their data and decide what content they want to share and with whom. In addition, if a student has to manage an economic transaction, such as in the case of wanting to enroll in another school, he / she will need to pay the corresponding fees, and thanks to the Blockchain the process can be carried out safely. 
On the other hand, another of the applications that use Blockchain technology, allow for a new system for issuing and certifying official documents and qualifications. Thanks to this, you can ensure the accuracy of the assessments and qualifications a student gets. In this case, the technology applied by the system certifies the registration in a safe way and certifies the authenticity of the entire history of each student. Therefore, it is a tool that all teachers should know and, in addition, explain to their students as they will have to deliver all written work and exams through that platform. It will be important for them since they will also have to manage their academic record from that tool. 
Benefits of Blockchain technology in education

Currently, the use of this new technology consisting of block chains is rare and is still used in very specific cases. I tell you the benefits that Blockchain technology can offer you in education :
Universal Online certification:
The immutability and guarantee of veracity granted by the blockchain could lead to the creation of a new system for issuing and certifying both official documents and academic degrees.
Environmental Respect
Thanks to the Blockchain technology applied to education, it is possible to reduce a great use of paper, since everything is digitalized it contributes to the reduction of deforestation. We avoid printing large numbers of documents that are now scanned safely each student can access to consult whenever you want. 
Academic Records
Thanks to the immutability of the application, the possibility of safeguarding all reports and student work within the platform is increased. Blockchain offers a secure model for collecting grades, letters of recommendation, certificates, among others. This technology will be essential to avoid fraud.
Goodbye Plagiarism
Blockchain technology can be applied in education makes it inaccessible to modify any document without approval. It is possible that in a short time the plagiarism will remain outside our lives forever and be part of the past and not of the present or future.
Avoid identity Theft
All students will be their own managers. They themselves must control their data and they are the ones who decide what content to publish and who to share. Blockchain technology has the capacity to manage, share and protect digital content.  
Goodbye to physical Money
With Blockchain technology, payments can be made through 'tokens', thus eliminating the need to make currency exchanges between countries and in the case of exchange of students or students who are interested in a course in another country they could pay with' tokens'. 


Blockchain in IOT
Blockchain in IoT: 

Benefits and use cases
Blockchain and the Internet of Things (IoT) emerged with maximum public attention in recent years in addition to their implementation in the networks of global financial systems and industrial leaders. This article will explain the concept of the Internet of things and give answers to some essential questions about the convergence of blockchain and IoT, its benefits and future challenges, its use cases of greater cooperation.




What is the IoT in simple words?
Iot, or the Internet of things, is a concept of connecting any possible device to the Internet by creating a network where they could save and exchange each other's data. It should be noted that objects united in an interconnected system do not require human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction to obtain, receive and send data. 
Computers and smartphones are definitely a part of IoT but it also includes a lot of things: 
cars, smart appliances, medical equipment, sensors of all kinds, printers and much more.
IoT devices can be divided into three groups:

  • Those who collect the information and send it (for example, different temperature, light, action, etc. sensors);
  • Those who receive information and act accordingly (for example, a printer receives a document and prints it, an electric kettle receives a signal and begins to heat the water, etc);
  • Those who know how to do both (for example, an irrigation system collects information about the humidity level and automatically turns on if the level is not enough).



What are the weaknesses of the IoT?
Privacy & Security
There have already been several cases of IoT devices that shared private information on the Internet or that have been hacked. Some of these cases threatened the life and health of the people. For example, in 2017 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned 500,000 pacemakers connected to the Internet that had been considered weak for hacker attacks. Another example is from hackers who had found weaknesses in Jeep cars and forced emergency brakes at high speed.
Centralization
Traditional IoT systems are often based on a closed and centralized architecture and this has created many questions. The devices collect the information and send it to the cloud where it will be processed and sent back to the IoT device. This system requires that third parties check and verify each transaction between the devices which entails limited scalability, high prices and many weaknesses in the network security system.
 
Low compatibility
Interoperability in IoT remains at the low levels of coexistence of various protocols and connectivity standards. Different IoT platforms have different forms of connectivity formats and manufactures must choose only one when producing their equipment. A single IoT platform can't be compatible with many other devices. If the manufacturer produces a device compatible with a platform, it will not be so easy to connect it to a different platform. The given situation does not satisfy either manufactures or users and it would be much more comfortable to have a unique standard.
How can Blockchain help improve IoT?
Improve security
Blockchain treats device message exchanges as transactions verified by smart contracts. Transactions are recorded in blocks, this ensures that they are organized in fair sequences and assigned to the timestamp when they have been added. The cryptographic algorithms used by the blockchain ensure user data making them more private and preventing previous records from being changed.
Enter smart contracts
Blockchain is designed to act as a basic layer for applications that involve transactions and interactions and smart contracts have an important role in it. They work autonomously (and do not need intermediaries to approve or confirm a transaction) when certain conditions are met. What do they give to the IoT? More secure and autonomous operation, faster and cheaper transactions, more data security. 
Smart contracts also make the billing process easier and more convenient: complicated payment systems are not needed. The transaction is made, tokens are transferred and these processes are clear and transparent in the blockchain
Decentralize
Unlike traditional centralized architecture, a decentralized blockchain network could improve the lack of system tolerance. A single error would not deactivate the entire network because it works using millions of individual nodes. In addition, in a decentralized system the information saved and processed is not controlled by a group of powerful companies.
Decrease expenses
Blockchain greatly reduces connection costs by eliminating the need for an infrastructure. Expenditure on additional administration, maintenance or installation disappears.
What are the cases of use of Blockchain and IoT in the industry?
Jaguar Land Rover
The largest UK car manufacturing with IOTA boosted the price of MIOTA (the platform's own token) by 20% in 24 hours on Monday, April 29. Cryptocurrency can be used to drivers for sharing information about traffic jams and potholes. Rewards can be used to automatically pay tolls, parking and electric charges. The head of IOTA cooperation, Holger Köther said: "Our technology goes perfectly with machine-to-machine payments for smart charges, parking lots and tolls, as well as allowing drivers to get their own crypto funds."
Volkswagen
Volkswagen has been actively exploring IOTA and as the result presented the Proof-of-Concept (PoC) that uses the IOTA Tangle system for autonomous cars at the 2018 Cebit Expo in Germany. The new “Connected” car system will use IOTA Tangle to transfer software updates safely and wirelessly.
Fujitsu
The largest information and communication technology company in Japan used IOTA as the new protocol standard for audit trails.It will plan to use IOTA to improve transparency, data security ,trust, etc. Fujitsu's team considered the IOTA protocol as "an immutable data storage medium."
Bosch
The Bosch XDK is a device with the programmed sensor and an IoT prototype platform that can be used as the sensor node solution. The Bosch XDK can be used to collect specific real-time data that can be sold in the IOTA Data Market. Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) allows data to be shared P2P through a secure and encrypted channel.
 
What are the challenges for Blockchain and IoT?
Scalability
Most existing blockchains are not compatible with most of the data produced by IoT devices and this number is only increased. Research shows that the number of devices that will be connected to the IoT will reach at least 20 billion by 2020. Bitcoin and Ethereum have suffered from scalability issues and their current status does not allow them to deal with the amounts of data produced by the IoT devices. Without slowing down.
Security
Blockchain has to make IoT safer as problems arise on the other side. The security of the devices connected to the IoT is complicated and blockchain cannot guarantee that they will not be hacked. This means that any IoT device should, in a perfect world, have the highest level of security but is not cost effective.
Interoperability
All devices are connected by the Internet but the situation is complicated when we add the blockchain. Different blockchains are usually isolated from each other and if the interoperability challenge is not addressed, we will have smart devices connected to numerous decentralized and isolated networks. It could work for certain purposes but it would not become the Internet of everything where all devices are connected to each other and can interact with each other.
Final thoughts
Enthusiasts always say that blockchain improves the industry by revolutionizing many processes. Will it work with the IoT? Perhaps, since blockchain should bring great benefits to IoT but most of the challenges will have to be faced equally. Blockchains known as Blockchain or Ethereum cannot support large volumes of data from IoT devices. IOTA chose another path by creating the Tangle platform with increased scalability and this attitude has been approved by many corporations including Jaguar Land Rover, Bosch, Fujitsu and Volkswagen.


Blockchain technology will change the Gaming Markets


The biggest growth came from mobile gaming. In addition, new technologies have the potential to radically build the gaming market and offer new growth opportunities. Blockchain technology has the greatest long-term potential here.
Here are the three ways that the blockchain will change gaming in the future :

1. The blockchain will turn traditional gaming companies inside out 

The blockchains are known for bringing decentralization to massive industries. It transfers the power from the centralized organizations (e.g. banks, notaries, game manufacturers, etc.) to the consumers themselves. This is exactly what the blockchain can and will achieve in the game industry.

Companies such as Activision / Blizzard, Electronic Arts, CCP Games and Perfect World currently determine which games are played in the gaming universe. With the blockchain, however, this can turn from companies to platforms where users can decide what they want. This can have a huge impact.

For example, gamers currently have gatekeepers (centralized organizations) that dictate prices, control taxes, censor users, control content, and monetize data. However, with decentralized platforms, consumers can get in touch and act without such intermediaries. This would ultimately give players more control and flexibility in their gaming experience.

2. Blockchain offers cross-platform support 

As long as the gaming content is created on a central platform (ie owned by a single organization), there will be no cross-platform support. Facebook can easily prevent gaming content developed for Facebook's own Spaces VR Welt from running on other platforms such as Oculus.

Due to the limited ability of a consumer or developer to use multiple platforms, the game manufacturers have limited the growth of in-world communities. Decentralized platforms with a blockchain, on the other hand, would give players and developers what they really want: more control. Only then will users get the best game for their needs. This is exactly why there are users of games who modify their games themselves - that is, modding!
Chris Vollmer, a strategist in PwC's global entertainment and media business, told VentureBeat last year: "If I were a games publisher, I would work more about social communities, peer-to-peer connections, and a network for a specific object and create more connectedness".if Vollmer said, blockchain-enabled experiences should empower the creativity he thought was necessary.
 
3. It gives power back to the gamer

Gaming experiences that are controlled by a central company result in the following problems:

  1. Control of the rules - artists, developers and consumers can only offer items and services that are approved by the platform owners. This has also resulted in a black market in many digital worlds, ostensibly worth over $ 6 billion.


  2. Control of Transactions - Nowadays, users are unable to capture the full value of their actions due to transaction costs. For example, Second Life charges a 5 percent fee to users for every item exchange in the game.


  3. Access Control - Centralized platform operators can deny access to any user at any time and at their own discretion.


  4. Control over the in-world currency - For currencies within a game world, gamers are exposed to the game manufacturer's monetary policy. You have little or no insight into the future development of the in-world currency. The game manufacturer can therefore decide how the money in the Blockchain game development and how much it is ultimately worth. Supply and demand that time not determine the price here.



Public Blockchain vs Private Blockchain
Public blockchain :

  • These are blockchains without permission where anyone can join the network and read and write in the central book. 
  • These chains permit customers from any part of the sector to interact and send or read transactions as long as they are connected to the chain network. 
  • In a blockchain without permission, any user can develop blockchain and add smart contracts with non intervention forced by the way of developers.
  • These blockchains without permission provide complete decentralization, which means that there may be no central authority to edit the fame of the ledger or make modifications of any kind in the network protocols. This makes the device robust against single point failures. 
  • Blockchains of this type allow anonymity that in turn provide privacy to its users. It is assumed that a user should not disclose any personal information before sending transactions and smart contracts. Since all participants can see each transaction, it makes the system transparent.
  • Examples: Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin



Private block chain :

  • The so-called allowed blockchains do not allow any user to join the network freely and read or write in the ledger. 
  • It maintains an access control mechanism between the list of users connected to the network
  • Such blockchains are widely adopted by centralized organizations are likely to securely record transactions and exchange important information with each other.
  • Such block chains can be partially decentralized or fully centralized, as users have the right to negotiate and reach a consensus with variable decentralization as they wish.
  • In these blockchains, the identity of users understood to all, however the transactions are simplest seen to those who have the appropriate permission. In addition, since no longer all users are involved within the consensus process, such blockchains have higher performance as compared to public blockchains.
  • Examples: Hyperledger, Multichain, Ripple 


Blockchain in Healthcare
As we look forward to 2020 and beyond, there are many fresh industries and innovative technologies that we will hear. Each discourse is in terms of its potential for growth, its large market, and its extraordinary opportunities. Two things we will hear when people talk about the future are the health industry and blockchain technology. 

Blockchain in healthcare

Blockchain technology will have a greater role in supporting digitization of the supply chain, as well as increasing transparency and efficiency. Health care organizations, from producers to retailers, can track products through the supply chain to ensure authenticity or signs that have the potential to damage the process on the way. These signs, such as signs of disturbance, extreme environmental conditions, or careless handling. If manufacturers identify quality problems with devices or drugs, the blockchain can help vendors speed up withdrawals in determining the location of inventory across the supply chain that needs to be kept away from circulation.
The FDA Drug Supply Chain Safety Act (DSCSA) is intended to improve regulatory oversight of counterfeit, stolen, contaminated, or dangerous drugs.
 Several pilot projects under DSCSA test how blockchain can secure information sharing across healthcare companies. 
For example, KPMG, IBM, Merck, and Walmart have been selected for a pilot program that will explore using blockchain technology to improve the safety of drug supply and distribution.
More and more companies are starting to implement blockchain technology in response to DSCSA. Genentech, a subdivision of Roche Group, Pfizer, McKesson, and AmerisourceBergen works with the MediLedger Project start-up blockchain. 
The MediLedger project is in the process of creating a platform that allows producers to track their products along with secure supply chain data, and demonstrate compliance with DSCSA.
Closer Integration with Other IT Innovations  
IT innovations such as artificial intelligence (AI), cloud hybrid solutions, and blockchain implementation will be considered as additional technologies that can accelerate the adoption of new technologies. The new Cloud-at-customer hybrid solution provides highly scalable public Cloud applications and services while safeguarding personal health data behind corporate firewalls to meet regulatory requirements. The use of AI goes beyond traditional analytics.
AI combines and then extracts insights by recognizing patterns and correlations across large amounts of data stored in hybrid clouds and managed safely on the blockchain platform. By integrating into many devices connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable devices, the blockchain has the potential to uncover demographic trends, accelerate R&D in the healthcare industry, and ultimately improve patient outcomes in the near future.
Faster Growth in Emerging Markets  ,
Developing countries are very pro-blockchain and will increase investment in 2020. More manufacturing-oriented countries, especially in Asia, will benefit from the implementation of the blockchain. The Chinese government has positioned itself to dominate the blockchain area with the most patents associated with blockchain. The Chinese State Council included the development of the blockchain in the 13th Five-Year Plan of the country. 
In 2019, Chinese president Xi Jinping said that the blockchain would play a major role in building China's power in cyberspace. In addition, the blockchain can develop the digital economy, and advance economic and social development. In addition, more countries will Build blockchain-based health care systems. Estonia has become the first country to use blockchain for health care on a national scale.
In 2018, the United Arab Emirates established plans to use blockchain technology to improve various aspects of the lives of its citizens, such as banking, transportation and health care. This initiative sets the country on track to become a fully functioning blockchain-based government by 2021. 
The health service platform provides a data sharing solution that enables health professionals, including doctors, pharmacists, technicians, and local licensed health authorities, to save and share assessment information. 
2025, the Blockchain market for health services will reach $ 1.6 billion
According to research from consulting firm Global Market Insights, the value of blockchain technology in health services is expected to exceed $ 1.6 billion. The achievement is predicted to occur in 2025. 

Blockchain is a recognized technology that helps health care facilities save a lot of money from fraud and fake drugs. Therefore, a positive impact on health care outcomes. 

Based on this research, blockchain in the healthcare market will grow due to a number of factors. These factors, such as the implementation of government initiatives and increased investment in the field.
There are several factors supporting growth in this project. These factors, namely examination of medical results, 
1.interoperability of health data, 
2.reduction in the cost component 
will further impact on the adoption of the blockchain.
Global Market Insights revealed that developing recognition approximately the software of blockchain era and government initiatives for records standardization and operational scalability constraints in information management will spur industry growth in the coming years. 

Global Market Insights said that the volume in the worldwide healthcare market would reach more than $ 1.7 billion by 2026, with a combined annual growth rate of 48.1%. This latest finding echoes the findings of Acumen Research and Consulting information technology firm in mid-July. 
In 2018, the blockchain technology market in health services in China dominates the Asia Pacific region. The market is worth more than USD2,6 million. 
China is actively promoting the application of blockchain technology in healthcare services to create smooth and efficient business operations that will help this country gain a competitive advantage compared to other countries around the world.


Blockchain in Supply chain
Blockchain in Supply chain

The blockchain is a technology that, applied in logistics, has an important impact on traceability and other aspects of the supply chain.
The blockchain is a decentralized way to share information reliably and securely thanks to its blockchain system verified by consensus. This means that each block of data is shared between several agents that validate them and guarantee their inviolability, without the need for an intermediary to concentrate the information. 
Each exchange of information or encrypted transaction is thus recorded in the copy of each agent and, therefore, cannot be modified once made.
The blockchain had its origins as the shared database behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, launched in 2008, but soon the utility of its application for other uses was detected.
Applied in logistics, for example, it allows to register and authenticate product bar codes throughout the develop a supply chain to track goods in real time, in this way, if there is an attempt to modify or falsify the data of the products or orders, the actors participating in the blockchain can detect it immediately.

Blockchain and logistics

Going deeper into its uses in logistics, blockchain is designed to provide solutions to the complex ecosystems of the logistics chain where there is no major participant, where collaboration among those involved is often unreliable, where information must be centralized and where the Security of this information is a matter of high priority. With the use of the blockchain in logistics, these ecosystems can be united by alliance to foster the necessary trust among all the collaborators in the chain, whether they are partners or competitors, guaranteeing protection, traceability and confidentiality in the processes.
Blockchain offers visibility from start to finish when it comes to the shipment of goods; Each event related to a given product (whether in production, processing, transportation, storage or delivery) is recorded in the form of a blockchain transaction , also monitoring the documentation and packaging associated with that product.
Using a platform enabled with this technology in logistics guarantees that:


  • It is easier and safer to coordinate the important documentation to discover and validate the load,disposing of paperwork.
  • You can enter into "smart contracts" whose validity and compliance can be verified in real time, which makes import and export procedures quick and efficient.
  • The data exchanged between the logistics actors are reliable, and this allows for timely and accurate decisions to accelerate the transit of goods through warehouses and customs posts.
  • The system offers scalability and this results in immediate solutions as the demand for fast order deliveries increases.
  • The confidence given by the veracity of the information eliminates the need for constant audits to confirm it.

 In sum, all this helps to eliminate bureaucratic processes, long waits and, therefore, the obstruction of the flow of goods.
In collaboration, the technology company and consultant IBM and the Danish transport company Maersk are using this technology to streamline information flows and financial transfers, and to reduce the time spent on bureaucratic procedures during their logistics processes.
According to a study conducted by Maersk in 2014 and cited by IBM in the announcement of its 2017 Hyperledger Fabric system , generally, the transfer of refrigerated products from Africa to Europe requires the participation of some 30 companies or officials, and It represents the generation of 200 proof of interactions. Both leading companies in their respective sectors expect to significantly reduce time and costs with the use of the blockchain .
In the Dutch port of Rotterdam, the largest in Europe, more than 15 public and private companies created a consortium two years ago to start experimenting with blockchain technology . Its purpose is to test its applications in logistics, and it has found more and more benefits by integrating it with the Internet of Things (IoT) and modern supply chain management systems.
  
Benefits of your application

The most remarkable attribute of blockchain technology  in this regard is that the information once stored cannot be changed, which creates confidence that the rules have been respected and there is a reliable way to track the entire distribution or distribution flow. a transaction This offers total transparency in logistics, which is essential for companies that outsource suppliers and for customers of consumer products.
The advantages of using blockchain in logistics processes include:

  • Time and cost savings in supply chain management by reducing paperwork.
  • Elimination of errors and eradication of fraud.
  • Optimization of storage, transport and distribution processes.
  • Reliability and integrity of the information shared.
  • Efficient collaboration between the different participating agents.
  • Transparency in the path of the goods so that the customer always knows where his order is.
  • Greater security of the load because the consensus verification of the information will allow to detect if an employee intends to carry out a fraudulent action by altering a registration code.

Each of these benefits of using the blockchain in the supply chain will result in better customer service and greater profitability for your business. 

The challenges of the future

The conjugation of blockchain in the supply chain represents agility in the processes, security and veracity of the information, transparency in the processes and trust in the collaboration. All that, in the end, will result in lower costs, logistics efficiency and greater profitability for your business.
Although its implementation has been limited so far, an acceleration in technology adoption is expected in the coming years, as well as an explosive growth of the organization that brings together the companies involved with the use of the blockchain in the supply chain, known as the Blockchain Alliance in Transportation (or BiTA).
For its members, the key to the successful implementation of technology in their sector is that universal standards are created to eliminate administrative inconsistencies and improve the visibility of goods and the transparency of processes. 
The challenges facing technology in terms of the financial investment required, the adequacy of existing and applicable regulations and resistance to change among participants are not few, but the great benefits of the application of the blockchain in logistics will end up imposing it.
 
Blockchain in Food Industry
Blockchain technology covers the need to certify the entire life chain of a product in an unquestionable way in cases where there are numerous parties involved and large volumes of data, as is the case in the food sector.

The blockchain technology  help us,
1. Transparency of operations,  
2. Contribute to food security , 
3. Reduce food waste,
4. Favor automated payments and contracts,
5. Prevent food fraud and even make food supply more sustainable. 

Blockchain in food industry is the opportunity to verify the production, storage, distribution and sale process in a safe and automated way; as well as certify the transactions made by the different parties involved (producers, distributors, etc.”


But all this is mainly translated into concrete applications that will explain in more detail:

1.Traceability,food safety and alert messages
  • The blockchain makes it possible to verify the exchanges that have occurred since the food left the agribusiness complex to the supermarket shelf (what is known as "from farm to table").
  • Date, time, place and all the data related to the same product in the different stages of its route, will be recorded unchanged by the system. It should be noted that data could be collected not only  from lots and inventory management, but also GPS data for location information, temperatures, etc.
  • Through this tool companies can quickly locate in the supply chain, products affected by a possible contamination or any other incidence (for example, a break in the cold chain), allowing a specific withdrawal only of the lots involved.
  • In addition, making these are data easily accessible can improve the ability of health authorities and consumers to take action if there is a health problem related to food.
  • In the blockchain use, a company could provide all the information necessary for the crisis management or food alert, in a matter of seconds instead of days. This would translate into less sick or injured people and more confidence in the food system.

2.Transparency and Prevention of food fraud:

  • With the blockchain all transactions between two parties are visible to all interested parties. Without a doubt, transparency is the star benefit of this technology.
  • Unlike traditional accounting books, entries to the blockchain accounting book cannot be changed once they are sent. This makes it virtually impossible to "corrupt" the data within the supply chain and, therefore, it is much more difficult to commit fraud. 
  • Companies that use blockchain technology to prove transparency in their supply chains will have a kind of "insurance policy" in case a scandal shakes the industry.
 
What about the mistakes?
Given the immutable nature of the data in the blockchain, people may wonder what happens if an error is made. How are the erroneous data corrected? Simple: just add the correct data and blockchain technology will allow you to see what has changed but without hiding the error.
It's like writing with a pen instead of a pencil. If we used a pencil we could erase or change data without anyone knowing. However, with the pen we can cross out the error and write next to it, but error and rectification are visible.
In a blockchain, nothing ever changes; IT UPDATES. This is why blockchain registrations are completely reliable. Errors, whether accidental or intentional, are visible and attributable.
Truthful and complete information available to consumers
So far we have focused on applications and benefits from an industry perspective, but consumers can also be favored by the use of the blockchain.
For consumers, blockchain technology can mark a before and after. This way we could verify it a few days ago when the Carrefour supermarket chain launched a product (chicken) with a scannable code label that allowed the user to have all the product information from its origin.
For consumers, the blockchain offers the necessary transparency to ensure that the food they eat is exactly what the label says they are.
Can you imagine being able to track and check with 100% certainty all the history of each food you buy in the supermarket? Well, now you can stop imagining and see for yourself because blockchain technology has made this a reality.
Simply by reading with a smartphone the QR code of the labeling of a meat, for example, data such as the date of birth of the animal, the use of antibiotics, vaccines, the mode of breeding, the location of the farm, etc., They can be easily transmitted to the consumer. A breakthrough that will undoubtedly favor the consumer confidence.
But are they all benefits?
Blockchain technology may soon become an affordable solution for both small and medium businesses and large organizations. However, it is not exempt from limitations such as those detailed below:
1.  Since all the information would be available and accessible, a series of contracts between the companies participating in the chain would be necessary  , to guarantee a certain level of confidentiality . The way to balance confidentiality with transparency would have to be resolved.
2.  The food industry is full of secrets (think, for example, in all the stories that circulate around the secret "formula" of Coca-Cola). Blockchain technology could be problematic for many food companies that seek to preserve their competitive advantage by not advertising any type of information, such as the percentages of ingredients in their products, raw material suppliers, etc.
3. However, the most important challenge for blockchain technology remains participation. All parties must adopt the technology to make it work , or what is the same, every one of the actors in the supply chain, from the farmers to the owners of restaurants or retail stores, would have to buy it.
 




What is Ethereum Blockchain?
Ethereum Blockchain

  • Blockchain is open-source, public, and blockchain-based distributed platform and operating system featuring a smart contract functionality, Ethereum allows distributed applications to be built and executed without any downtime, fraud, control, or interference from a third-party entity.
  • Ethereum is a Turing-complete programming language going for walks on a Blockchain that helps developers publish Develop Ethereum blockchain applications. 
  • One of the principle tasks around Ethereum is Microsoft’s partnership with ConsenSys which gives Ethereum Blockchain as a Service (EBaaS) on Microsoft Azure to business organization clients and builders with a unmarried click on cloud-based blockchain developer environment.
  • Ethereum Blockchain Size depends solely on implementation. 




How does Ethereum work?
  • Ethereum operates with a protocol similar to Bitcoin and its blockchain design. However, it is programmed so that the applications are compatible, as long as they are not money systems. 

The similarity between both block chains is presented in the transaction history, since each one is responsible for storing them. Ethereum, in turn, requires that each node within the network download the current state, all the code and where each of the smart contracts that are within it is stored, along with the balance of each user.

  • Millions of daily transactions occur within the network, which are grouped to give rise to the blocks. Each of these is chained to its previous blocks and to make the transaction effective and it goes to the general ledger, it must be validated through mining. 

Mining is a process by which groups of nodes or miners solve mathematical puzzles to obtain the new currencies that have come into circulation. Whoever has a powerful computer and manages to solve it in the shortest possible time will validate the block. This process has become a competition among miners worldwide, since for each validated block, new ETH tokens will be granted to the miner. This is how the miners, in addition to being responsible for producing ETH, are also responsible for confirming and verifying the transactions of each of the users within the network. 



 
Utilities of Ethereum Blockchain

  • Any provider that's centralized initially can be decentralized using Ethereum. From services like loans to their intermediary counterparts, Ethereum can revolutionize lots of strategies that exist across one of a kind industries and verticals. Now think, if they all get decentralized, how steady and efficient would every component of human life become.
  • Ethereum also can be used to construct decentralized autonomous agencies (DAOs). Fully autonomous, and decentralized businesses with no unmarried leader, DAOs are operated via programming codes, on a collection of clever contracts written on the Ethereum blockchain. A DAO is owned by all of us who purchase tokens. However, instead of every token equating to equity stocks and ownership, they act as contributions that give human beings vote casting rights for a consensus.
  • Ethereum has recently created a new fashionable. Termed as the ERC-721 token, this well known is used for tracking particular virtual assets. A major use case for these tokens is virtual collectibles.
  • The infrastructure of those tokens allows humans to prove ownership of scarce virtual goods.
  • Ethereum token is also know as ERC20 token. Develop your ERC20 token now with few steps


What is Dapps
What is Dapps?
dapps operate autonomously without a central control entity with all the changes decided by the proposals and the consensus of their users.
Why developers can interest on Dapps:
without a central authority, they are architecturally superior to centralized applications.

Typical definitions include the following attributes:


The code is open source and managed autonomously.

  • Logs and data are stored by blockchain, which provides reliable interaction and avoids any single point of failure.
  • Use cryptographic tokens to reward users who provide computing power.
  • Tokens generated through a cryptographic algorithm.

The advantages of Dapps

fault tolerance. If an application becomes too popular or is the victim of a denial of service attack, the application developer cannot do anything except cry.

On the other hand, Dapps have their resources and functionality distributed among the peers in the blockchain.

What makes it extremely expensive to attack with traditional denial of service attacks, since they do not depend on a single server.

The other important advantages that dapps have over their centralized counterparts are that they reformulate the dynamics.

Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram depend on the content that their users produce and consume.

With regular applications, the centralized entity is the maximum beneficiary of the effort contributed by its users.

With Dapps, its decentralized governance models ensure that power is redistributed so that application users and their software creators can benefit in a more egalitarian manner.

dApps in Action
The Bitcoin and Ethereum are considered dApps Ethereum and currently is the main platform to create dApps. With Solidity, Ethereum allows developers to form smart contracts using the tools of the Truffle Framework, and they can also test their smart contracts and deploy them on the blockchain.
Examples of decentralized apps based on Ethereum that have reached millions of dollars in market value are Golem (computing power), Augur (forecasting market) and Melonport (digital asset management). These projects aim to reconfigure the economy using blockchain technology and bring us closer to a decentralized world.

Dapps, the future for the delivery of information without manipulation

Although the technological advantages of Dapps can be very clear, when it comes to really unlocking the potential of dapps, since being a decentralized part the manipulation of the data is quite difficult.

A clear example that we can give is the role social networks play in political events, a clear example was in Egypt some years ago.

Another example is the scandals that were announced in elections in some countries, where social networks have been used to favor certain candidates.

Given this, Dapps can completely change the landscape, but one element is still missing: real-time data.

Most developers, of course, are completely familiar with the advantages of real-time information.

But the integration of quality real-time data sources for decentralized applications brings serious challenges.

Currently, Dapps that handle only crypto transactions within the scope of the blockchain do not need to think about these problems.






What is IEO(Initial Exchange Offering)
What is IEO?
IEO is the abbreviation for the English expression Initial Exchange Offering (a close translation is the initial exchange offer), which means launching a startup on the exchange platform. This is one way to avoid investing in fraudulent and futile projects. There is no guarantee that tokens will be profitable, but IEO exchanges control more reliably than ICOs .
Important : In order to determine the prospects of investments, a deep qualitative analysis is necessary, for which exchange players often simply do not have enough time.
In these conditions, there is a need for an intermediary who will undertake the verification of startups and clarify the risks. Cryptocurrency exchanges naturally, as originally included in the process, took over these functions. They have the ability to conduct audits, assess prospects and provide expert analysis of projects.
Thus, IEO is a tool for temporarily transferring start-up token management to the exchange where the trade starts. The intermediary collects funds on behalf of the token issuer . When the process is completed, the coins are listed on the exchange platform.
What advantages does an IEO Initial Exchange Offering have?
The success of a project will always depend on many factors: team, idea, growth capacity ... but what is clear is that when planning a first round of financing this 2018 the idea of ​​an ICO is something that seems far-fetched due to the lack of regulation in this regard.
The IEOs are still ICOs that are somehow protected by an exchange. This allows you to get several things that an ICO would not get. Let's see the differences between a conventional ICO and an IEO so that it is better understood:


  • Public to which the IEO is destined
     : If in an ICO any person who had the possibility to buy the ICO tokens could participate in the offer, the IEOs are intended only for the clients of a specific exchange. For example, if an IEO is supervised by Binance, only the clients of this exchange can obtain the tokens of that IEO . Nowhere else or exchange will it be possible to acquire them. Now, this system guarantees us that an intermediary (it seems incredible that in a world of decentralization in the end we have to end an intermediation) will have the funds deposited and that the entity that has launched the offer will not leave with the Money from the first investors.
  • Destination of the funds : As we have said before, the destination of the investment is not a smart contract of which we do not know the actual operation but an account in an exchange, which should be trusted.
  • Responsibility of the funds : In this sense the financing manager is the exchange itself, which gives it absolute control over it and credibility.
  • Evaluation of the project : Knowing if a project has a chance of becoming something real (no longer successful) is a complex task for someone who knows little about the sector in which the project wants to develop. In a blockchain technology project , in addition to the market conditions, many technical aspects are involved, so that the decision to invest always becomes an adventure for many. In the Initial Exchange Offerings it is the exchange itself that somehow gives its seal of quality to the projects it presents.
  • Identification of the investor : Although large amounts of data are not requested and there is no initial screening of investors according to their investment capacity or previous experience in investments, the IEOs for the sole fact of having to be registered in an exchange to be able to participate already oblige lose anonymity In ICOs, this was not the case since only the wallet address from which the funds came from was known to investors.
  • Dissemination of the project : One of the advantages of this type of launching through the exchange is that part of the initial marketing is already done by the exchange itself through its channels and to its customers. In the case of ICO's, the project had to start from the utmost ignorance and had to reach potential investors by their own means. Now the Initial Exchange Offerings allow to alleviate the workload of the project in this sense since the diffusion of the exchange allows the idea of ​​the project and its offer to reach the market in a much faster way.
  • Liquidity : In this sense, once the project is launched, the liquide is usually much higher, since from the first day the project tokens can be traded in an exchange of a certain volume. Normally the exchanges that are considering this type of solutions already have a medium or medium high volume. This allows the liquidity of the token to be almost immediate.
  • Transparency : in the same way the project and its evolution are maintained with a transparency that they did not have before. The fact that the exchange is played the image in each launch makes this type of project from a transparency perspective never seen before.
  • Security and protection: Obviously this is perhaps one of the most important points. An example is in the recent canceled Raiden IEO by the Bittrex exchange. The exchange detected a possible anomaly related to an agreement that Raiden had with a partner and canceled the exit to exchange to protect its users. This allows that in cases like this one in which the project has some gap, users can recover their funds without any problem.


IEO Disadvantages

  • Despite its appeal, IEO has several drawbacks. Startups must go through a complicated project submission procedure. In each exchange the project requirements may vary. You must also understand that nothing happens for free. The market, at a minimum, transfers marketing costs to developers, who often exceed thousands of dollars and, at most, can request a percentage of all funds raised.
  • IEO projects go through a complex verification process. For this trading platform, it must remain in the staff of highly qualified specialists and analysts, which is associated with high salary costs.
  • Investors may also face some difficulties. In particular, the site will definitely have to go through the KYC procedure ("Know your customer"), according to the rules of which exchanges request a documentary identification. The predominant number of exchanges is centralized, so that, during the period of participation in the auction, the investor entrusts his money to the administration of the exchange, which is often associated with risks.
  • The main drawback is the flip side of the included listing - high fees, especially for new projects. Inclusion of a token in the list of currencies traded on the exchange can cost up to 20 MTC . Moreover, there is a commission from the funds received from investors up to 10%.
  • Risks for the cryptocurrency exchange itself, if analyst forecasts are wrong. In this case, not only financial losses are likely, but also damage to the reputation of the exchange.
  • Decreased anonymity for investors. When working under the KYC scheme , registration and verification of an account is required .

 



What is ICO?
An ICO ( initial coin offering in English, which we can translate by initial coin offer), is the procedure through which the creation of a new cryptocurrency is financed. It is a process not regulated by official regulatory bodies. Normally, in the process a percentage of the new cryptocurrency is sold to investors in exchange for money or other cryptocurrencies (mainly Bitcoin).
When a startup wants to launch a new cryptocurrency and raise funds through an ICO, it writes a plan in a document called whitepaper . This document reflects what the new cryptocurrency project is about, how much money the project needs to be carried out, how many units of the new cryptocurrencies the creators of the project will receive for themselves, what payment methods are accepted to finance the project. new cryptocurrency, and how long the initial ICO campaign will last.
The new cryptocurrencies that are distributed among project investors are also known as tokens . These currencies or tokens fulfill a function similar to the actions distributed in an OPS (public subscription offer) in the creation and IPO of a new company. If not enough funds are raised to finance the new cryptocurrency project, the ICO is considered to have failed and the money is returned to investors.
Investors in an ICO hope that the new cryptocurrency project will be successful and that they will be able to sell their currencies in the future for a value greater than what they acquired .
How to use ICOs:

  • Without doubt, the main objective for which the creator of the token decided to make the first ICO was to raise money . A clear example is Ethereum, which managed to raise $ 18 million.
  • But on the other hand, we find those who participate economically in ICOs. These, what they pretend is to profit, since of normal, the cryptocurrencies rise fast of price. In addition, the initial participants of a project are more likely to obtain benefits.

 
 
 
ICO Advantages:

  • One of the main advantages of ICOs is that financing is not achieved by traditional methods such as banks or investors in venture capital, therefore, conditions will always be better .
  • As for individual investors , they have the opportunity to finance very innovative companies directly . This is positive, since traditional financing methods are usually only available when it comes to a large amount of capital, and not for smaller amounts. This is due to the risks and legal issues that come into play.

Fund a Blockchain based project:
It is important to keep in mind that an ICO not only serves to finance the creation of new cryptocurrencies, but also, to finance projects based on the Blockchain or the blockchain .  
The Blockchain is a system that allows you to have all the information encrypted in a secure way and only shared between the parties linked to the transaction that is going to be carried out, in order to register the economic transactions that have been made with the cryptocurrency.
In the beginning, the blockchain was only used for the creation of virtual currencies, however, it can currently be used for multiple tasks, such as cloud computing , managing copyright , as well as storing and modifying data in a safe and verifiable way.
However, whenever you want to use Blockchain technology for special use, there must be an associated currency for it to be carried out. Normally, these currencies are called token , to avoid confusing said project with the creation of a new cryptocurrency. Therefore, an ICO can be created to finance the project and changing these pre-mined tokens for money. These tokens can also be used within the same project to make payments for specific services.
Therefore, we already see that ICOs will both help us to finance the creation of new cryptocurrencies as projects created from the Blockchain or blockchain system.
 
 
 
ICO Security:
As it is an innovative system with little experience, we can still talk about some risks when deciding to participate in an ICO, such as the fact that the project does not go well and the coins that are delivered in exchange for money that has no value.
Another risk is that the security of the cryptocurrency is not correct and someone can hack the system and steal the money. An example of cases like this was that of DAO, in which they managed to steal more than 150 million dollars from investors.
It is also important to keep in mind that these types of operations are not legally regulated, but are outside the conventional financial system. This is a problem that is struggling to solve, since they are beyond the reach of governments and this means they have no control of money or taxes. Not long ago, Korea was considering the possibility of banning cryptocurrencies. This lack of regulation has opened numerous debates about whether ICOs and cryptocurrencies are an illegal system, but for now, it is still in operation and there are many who decide to invest through this method.
Learn about more cryptocurrency refer this site below:
 
 


What is Merkle tree?
What is Merkle tree?

Newbies to cryptocurrency who stumble upon the phrase “Merkle Tree” for the primary time might marvel how trees all at once exist inside the world of cryptocurrency and blockchain. But yes, there is certainly a tree named as such within the global of computing and complex mathematical processes.

Put simply, a Merkle Tree, also known as a binary tree, is a technique of structuring statistics that allows brief and efficient verification of big chunks of facts.

This method changed into a developed  by means of Ralph Merkle, a laptop scientist who's also one of the inventors of public key cryptography. 
According to his definition, the Merkle Tree “comprises a technique of imparting a virtual signature for functions of authentication of a message, which utilizes an authentication tree function of a one-manner feature of a mystery number.”

In different words, it's far  an academic that permits computers to affirm data a lot faster than ever before.

Brief introduction of Merkle Tree

To understand a Merkle Tree, the first word that every blockchain technology  transaction has its specific transaction ID, which is often a 64-character code that uses as much as 256 bits of memory.

Since blockchains consist of thousands and lots of blocks, and every block contains thousands of transactions, it isn't unexpected that memory area is the largest assignment for blockchains.

For this reason, it’s important to apply as little data as possible for the duration of the records processing and verification processes. Not handiest does this shorten the processing time, but it also gives the best degree of security.

What a Merkle Tree does is to system lots of transaction IDs into a single, 64-bit code. That code serves as evidence that a transaction has taken place, and due to the fact the code is short, the pc can technique it an awful lot faster and more successfully. That code is referred to as the Merkle Root.


How will it Work?
The first-level blocks (T0–T7) are normal transactions. These undergo a hash function, which offers them a hash cost, H0–H7. These second-stage blocks, referred to as leaves, incorporate the hashed price of the report associated with that leaf.a

After that, pairs of hash values are blended and rehashed, so the individual values emerge as H01, H23, H45, and H67. The manner is repeated, with the mixed hash valued blended and rehashed again. They then receive new hash values, H0123 and H4567. These blended hashes (levels three and 4) are the branches or nodes of the Merkle tree.

The very last hash will combine all of the values to create an unmarried value, H01234567. That price is the Merkle Root, and it consists of a precis of all the transaction records.

Benefits of Merkle tree

From the determine above we will see the different blessings of the Merkle Tree:

  •  It serves as evidence of the integrity and validity of the data.
  •  It does now not want an awful lot disk space and proofs, due to its streamlined computation manner.
  •  Its proof and control require the simplest a small quantity of facts to be dispatched throughout a community.

All these blessings are feasible thanks to the verification procedure implemented in the Merkle Tree. This system consists of consistency verification and facts verification.

Consistency verification of Merkle tree

Also known as consistency verification, this technique we could you affirm that any two versions of a log are regular, and suggests that the report has now not been tampered with.

The consistency proof works on the subsequent processes:
  •  The new version consists of all the information within the old version
  •  Everything is within the same order
  •  All new statistics are positioned after the older version.



A log is deemed regular if you could prove that:
  •  The certificates are not backdated before positioned into the log.
  •  The certificate has no longer been modified in the log.
  •  The log has by no means been forked or branched.

Audit Proof

Also known as records verification, this procedure lets in you to validate whether or not a particular facts item has been included within the log. Like the consistency proof, the log serves as the proof of the report. Audit proofs are typically accomplished so auditors can affirm certificates of shipping layer security (TLS) clients. If an audit proof yields a root hash that doesn’t match the Merkle tree hash, it can handiest mean one thing – the certificates no longer exist in the log.

The Data can be Synchronized

A Merkle Tree is useful for the statistics synchronization of a distributed facts keep due to the fact it permits all nodes in a distributed system to efficiently and quickly determine which information have changed – without sending all the records to make a comparison. Instead, if the auditor can confirm that a selected leaf has been changed, only the report in that specific leaf needs to be dispatched over the community.

Applications:
Industries that Use the Merkle Tree
Merkle Trees and their variations are used by means of a number of the most famous cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, as well as different systems:

Health Care Industry

DeepMind Health, Google’s AI-powered health technology division, is planning to apply a new generation based on bitcoin. Called Verifiable Data Audit, the mission aims to make a virtual ledger where all of the data of doctor–affected person interactions could be automatically saved and cryptographically verified. Hospitals, doctors, and patients could be capable of track what goes on with personal information in real-time; thus, they may be capable of revealing any modifications to and get entry to the facts.

Global Supply Chain

Large generation and transport corporations like IBM and Maersk are teaming up to utilize blockchain technology to digitize all forms of transport transactions inside the community of freight forwarders, shippers, customs authorities, and ocean carriers that make up the delivery chain.

Further more information to read about that article I wish to refer this site below,


What is Hyperledger?
 
What is Hyperledger?
Hyperledger is a blockchain platform based on open source. It can be used to create blockchain-based distributed ledgers that - unlike Bitcoin blockchain - meet the high requirements of corporations. For example, Hyperledger allows its own blockchain frameworks. This makes it much easier to create your own blockchain applications.
The Hyperledger project was founded in December 2015 by the Linux Foundation . The start-up Digital Asset Holdings (DAH) coined the name and made it available to the Linux Foundation. Anyone can participate in the Hyperledger community, at the moment more than 100 well-known companies are part of the open source project, such as IBM, Microsoft, Airbus or Daimler. A steering committee (TSC) with stakeholders from Accenture, CME Group, DAH, Deutsche Börse Group, IBM, Fujitsu, Hitachi, Intel JP Morgan, R3 and DTCC coordinates the project. 
How Hyperledger Works?
However, in a Hyperledger-based network, it's a completely different story! Peers directly affiliated with the agreement are connected, and only their accounting books are updated on the agreement. The third parties that help carry out the transaction only get to know the exact amount of information they need with the help of the permit and the regulations imposed on the network.Hyperledger is a blockchain platform based on open source. It can be used to create blockchain-based distributed ledgers that - unlike Bitcoin blockchain - meet the high requirements of corporations. For example, Hyperledger allows its own blockchain frameworks. This makes it much easier to create your own blockchain applications.
The Hyperledger project was founded in December 2015 by the Linux Foundation . The start-up Digital Asset Holdings (DAH) coined the name and made it available to the Linux Foundation. Anyone can participate in the Hyperledger community, at the moment more than 100 well-known companies are part of the open source project, such as IBM, Microsoft, Airbus or Daimler. A steering committee (TSC) with stakeholders from Accenture, CME Group, DAH, Deutsche Börse Group, IBM, Fujitsu, Hitachi, Intel JP Morgan, R3 and DTCC coordinates the project. 
Suppose person A and person B  were implementing their distinctive transaction on a Hyperledger-based network.  She'd search for person B  via an application which, in reaction, would consult with a membership support.  After registration has been confirmed, both pairs are linked and results are created.  Within this bipartite arrangement, the two outcomes need to be exactly the exact same to be confirmed.  However, in different trades with different parties, additional rules can apply.  These generated transactions have been sent to some consensus cloud to place an order, and they dedicate to their various accounting novels.
The Hyperledger whole series of projects are currently in the incubation phase:
1. Blockchain Explorer :
Hyperledger Blockchain Explorer is a user-friendly web application that enables you to search the ledger. Blocks, transactions and other information stored in the ledger can be viewed.

  • Submitted by Christopher Ferris (IBM), Dan Middleton (Intel) and Pardha Vishnumolakala (DTCC)
  • Approval from TSC on August 11, 2016


2. Fabric: 
Fabric is a blockchain frame which may be used to make various blockchain programs and solutions.Fabrics modular architecture makes it easy to add different components (consensus mechanism, access authorization, etc.)

  • submitted by Tamas Blummer (DAH) and Christopher Ferris (IBM)
  • Received approval from TSC on March 31, 2016


Features :

  • Permissioned Network
  • Core in go
  • Chaincode in Go or Java


 
3. Fabric API
The Fabric API includes a modular layout (code and runtime level) that enables integration with legacy systems.

  • submitted by a mixed finance team.


4. Fabric chaintool
The chaintool supports developers in various phases in their work with fabric compilation, testing, packaging and deployment.

  • Submitted by Gregory Haskins (LSEG), Eric Bauer (LSEG) and Muralidharan Srinivasan (IBM)
  • Received approval from TSC on June 16, 2016


Features : 

  • integrated into fabric
  • written in Clojure


5. Fabric SDK
Fabric SDK is a development library / runtime environment for Java and Go among others.

  • Submitted by Baohua Yang (IBM Research), Chang Chen (IBM Research), Kai Chen (IBM CIC China), Zhenlong Zhao (VLIS Lab ZJU) and Chuanjian Wnag (Nicescale)
  • Received approval from TSC on September 8th, 2016


Features :

  • Integrated in fabric
  • Written in Python


6. Sawtooth Lake
Sawtooth Lake was developed by Intel and designed for scaling. Offers itself in the finance and IoT area.

  • Submitted by Mic Bowmann (Intel) and Richard Gendal Brown (R3)
  • Received approval from TSC on April 14, 2016


Characteristics: 

  • Permissioned and Permissionless Network
  • - Written in Python
  • - Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) consensus


7. Iroha
Iroha is based on the fabric architecture and is aimed at mobile application developers.

  • Submitted by Makoto Takemiya (Soramitsu), Toshiya Cho (Hitachi), Takahiro Inaba (NTT Data) and Mark Smargon (Colu)
  • Received approval from TSC on October 13, 2016


Features : 

  • Permissioned Network
  • In C ++, Java chaincode
  • BFT Consensus (Sumeragi)


8. Corda
Corda is a private distributed ledger, but not a blockchain. Developed by the R3 banking consortium.
Features : 

  • Permissioned Network
  • Don't use blockchain


9. Cello
Cello helps with a blockchain as a service solution.

  • Submitted by Baohua Yang (IBM Research), Haitao Yue (IBM Research), Makoto Takemiya (Soramitsu), Zhipeng Huang (Huawei) and Ryan Beck-Buysse (Intel)
  • Received approval from TSC on January 5th, 2017


Features : 

  • Automated blockchain management
  • Supports Fabric, Sawtooth Lake and Iroha

Do you want learn more about hyperledger: https://www.blockchainx.tech/hyperledger-blockchain-development
 


Types of Blockchain

Public Blockchain:
 
The best known examples of public Blockchains are Bitcoin and Ethereum. A public blockchain is accessible to any user in the world. All that is needed is a computer and an Internet connection. The public Bitcoin Blockchain consists of the Bitcoin protocol (with a capital B), the bitcoin account unit or token (with a lowercase b) and the blockchain (the database in which transactions are recorded). Bitcoin was the inventor of the Blockchain concept, taking inspiration from other solutions and combining them in such a way that a decentralized system that solved the problem of Double Expenditure could be created. The problem of Double Expenditure, which had been investigated by scientists around the world for more than 30 years, said that in a decentralized system it was impossible to prevent an asset or digital being spent two or more times.In a centralized system avoiding the problem of Double Expenditure is very simple, but in a decentralized system in which all computers have a copy of all transactions (the blockchain) the question of how all nodes agree to define which It is the reality of that database in a decentralized way to reach a consensus and function is a highly complex problem that nobody managed to solve until Bitcoin appeared. Bitcoin solves this problem with mathematics, cryptography and the Bitcoin community (users, miners, exchange houses and developers of the Bitcoin ecosystem).
 
 
 
Private blockchain:

private Blockchain, unlike a public Blockchain , is not open to the public, but can only be accessed by invitation. Private Blockchains are newer than public Blockchains and can be very different from each other and in some cases it is even questionable that you can talk about Blockchain for some of the solutions that are known in the market. Some of the most famous are Hyperledger (from the Linux Foundation), R3 (a consortium of international banks to develop private blockchain banking solutions) or Ripple (a protocol to facilitate international money transfers).
Hybrid Blockchain:
The Blockchain hybrid is a combination of public and private. In a hybrid Blockchain the participating nodes are invited, but all transactions are public. That means that the nodes participate in the maintenance and security of this blockchain, but that all transactions are visible to users worldwide and that they do not have to know the content of the blockchain, unlike the private blockchains in which Transactions are private too. 

Consortium and Federated blockchain:

A federated blockchain in other terms called as consortium blockchain comes with mixed properties from public and private blockchain networks. One can classify the consortium blockchain or the federated blockchain as partially public and partially private. Under the consortium network, the power of authority comes semi- decentralized not residing to a single authority. Often, a federated blockchain is operative under a group and they are responsible to shed restrictions on users’ reading, writing and auditing rights. Under consortium blockchain only trusted nodes are acquainted with the responsibility of executing consensus protocol.

Unlike public blockchain networks, consortium networks don't invite anybody with the internet connection to participate in the network. It again demands permission from network admins. Federated blockchain is mainly applied in the banking sector for its fast speed, supreme scalability, and better transaction privacies. R3, EWF are examples of federated blockchains. 

Get more information about Blockchain:



How blockchain Work?
What is blockchain?

  • A blockchain (meaning "blockchain") is a special type of database, such as a digital accounting book although this simple explanation does not describe the genius behind how this technology records values ​​and transactions.
  • Until recently, people had to rely on third parties (such as banks, governments and companies) to store their valuable assets, and their transaction information.
  • For example, when you make a purchase with your credit card, you trust that the credit card company and your bank will keep your personal information and your transaction details safe.
  • This trust towards institutions does not only apply to financial transactions: A car rental service also maintains a central database with your personal details, your address, the vehicles you have rented, and when you need to return them.
  • You trust that they will keep all this information private and secure. The information was always kept centralized in these establishments, and each of them had to maintain their own records and systems. But not anymore!


How Blockchain Works?

The blockchain is able to record all the transactions of the participants in the blockchain network. He stores and shares them publicly. 

  • When people who want to make an online transaction are asked, what matters most to them in that movement, most stress security and transparency. And this is the main attraction that Blockchain has: the security and trust it generates.
  • The blockchain consists of strong cryptography. It is an extremely intelligent software that protects documents and data ensuring that they cannot be hacked. This technology means being able to make a transfer abroad in a matter of seconds and without any associated commission. In this way, banks and stock markets are the most affected by this new transaction system. The elimination of intermediaries means that banks have to put the batteries. For example, in our country, specifically in Galicia, they already have their first bitcoin cashier . But Blockchain doesn't just affect the banking landscape. It could change the way it works, is regulated and operated on the Internet. Other alternatives have recently emerged. These New protocols built on the basis of such technology give rise to services and products that provide an amount of information stored in a database that cannot be altered, nor is it owned by a single entity. 
  • Blockchain technology with these characteristics could be the future of electronic voting, for example. Since, due to the nature of its operation, it could guarantee a system in which identities and voting would be protected at a very low cost and would be in falsifiable.
  • An example will serve to understand its operation and the steps that occur to perform these transactions. But there is the premise that blockchain must have several users so that they will validate the transactions and will be recorded in that book to which the authors refer.

1. Someone wants to send money, ship a product, or sign a contract.
2. A notification of the action is sent to all users who are within the network (which could be global).
3. If the transaction is valid, everyone approves it.
4. After approval, the record is updated (that is, a block is added to blockchain ).

5. The action occurs, and, if it is a payment, the money changes hands.
6. An unmodifiable record closes the transaction.

Do you want to learn more information about blockchain:


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  • John Marshal
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    Writer, founder, passionate entrepreneur + I'm on a mission to build businesses
  • John Marshal
    @john
    Writer, founder, passionate entrepreneur + I'm on a mission to build businesses
  • John Marshal
    @john
    Writer, founder, passionate entrepreneur + I'm on a mission to build businesses
  • John Marshal
    @john
    Writer, founder, passionate entrepreneur + I'm on a mission to build businesses
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